List of Biotechnology Topics

May 18, 2016
The list at 7 percent

Biotechnology, the utilization of biological processes, as through the exploitation and manipulation of residing organisms or biological systems, in development or make of a product or perhaps in the technical treatment for difficulty. As such, biotechnology is an over-all category with programs in pharmacology, medication, farming, and several various other fields.

The strategies of hereditary manufacturing were accustomed manipulate the DNA (hereditary material; see nucleic acid) of micro-organisms and other organisms to produce biological services and products eg drugs (insulin, interferon, and hgh). A typical method tangled up in this procedure in gene splicing, where a gene that produces a desired item could be inserted into microbial DNA. Bacteria are able to be grown in large volumes and prepared to draw out the desired substance; specifically cultured plant and animal cells can be likewise grown and processed. Hybrids of disease and antibody-producing cells (hybridomas) being cloned in the laboratory to mass produce experimental monoclonal antibodies, which are being studied for the treatment of disease alongside conditions. Bacteria have also been changed to-break straight down oil slicks and commercial waste elements.

Flowers and foods with such desired attributes as prolonged rack life or increased resistance to conditions and pests have been developed through hereditary manufacturing; that is, by inserting DNA from other organisms. A lot of the corn and soybeans cultivated in the United States, for instance, are now genetically altered one way or another, Livestock are also genetically altered to make medically of good use substances (see pharming). The world of biotechnology also includes gene therapy, by which efforts are made to place regular or genetically altered genes into cells to treat hereditary conditions and persistent conditions.

See R. W. Old and S. B. Primrose, Principles of Gene Manipulation (5th ed. 1994); J. E. Smith, Biotechnology (3d ed. 1996).

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