Biotechnology terms

February 1, 2018
Slide 3 of 25 Biotechnology

Agricultural Biotechnology: a selection of tools, including traditional breeding practices, that alter living organisms, or areas of organisms, which will make or alter products; enhance plants or creatures; or develop microorganisms for specific farming utilizes. Modern-day biotechnology today includes the tools of genetic engineering.

Allergen: a compound, typically a necessary protein, that may cause a sensitivity or hypersensitive reaction in the body.

Allergy: a reaction by the human body's immunity after exposure to a certain substance, frequently a necessary protein.

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt): an earth bacterium that produces toxins that are dangerous to some bugs. The capacity to create Bt toxins has been designed into some plants. See Bt plants. Biopharming: producing pharmaceuticals including delicious vaccines and antibodies in flowers or domestic pets.

Bt crops: Crops being genetically engineered to hold a gene from earth bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The bacterium creates proteins which can be harmful for some insects but non-toxic to humans along with other mammals. Plants containing the Bt gene have the ability to produce this toxin, thus providing security the plant. Bt corn and Bt cotton fiber tend to be types of commercially available Bt plants.

Chromosome: The self-replicating genetic structure of cells, containing genetics, which determines inheritance of faculties. Chemically, each chromosome is composed of proteins and a lengthy molecule of DNA.

Clone: A genetic reproduction of a system developed without intimate reproduction.

Cross-pollination: Fertilization of a plant with pollen from another plant. Pollen are transported by wind, bugs, various other organisms, or people. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): The compound from which genes were created. DNA is an extended, double-stranded helical molecule comprised of nucleotides that are on their own consists of sugars, phosphates, and types of four bases adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T).

The series purchase of the four basics into the DNA strands determines the hereditary information included.

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): a method using antibodies for detecting particular proteins. Used to test for the existence of a certain genetically engineered organism.

Field test: A test of a brand new strategy or variety, including biotech-derived types, done outside of the laboratory but with particular needs on place, plot dimensions, methodology, etc.

Gene: the basic real and functional device of heredity. A gene is typically a specific part of a chromosome and encodes a specific practical item (such as a protein or RNA molecule).

Gene phrase: the consequence of the activity of a gene or genetics which manipulate the biochemistry and physiology of a system and may alter its outward look.

Gene circulation: The action of genes from one person or populace to another genetically compatible individual or population.

Gene mapping: Deciding the relative real places of genes on a chromosome. Useful for plant and animal breeding.

Gene (DNA) sequencing: Determining the actual series of nucleotide bases in a-strand of DNA to higher comprehend the behavior of a gene.

Hereditary engineering: Manipulation of a system's genes by presenting, eliminating or rearranging particular genes with the methods of modern-day molecular biology, especially those practices named recombinant DNA strategies.

Genetically engineered system (GEO): a system produced through genetic manufacturing.

Hereditary customization: producing heritable improvements in flowers or creatures for particular utilizes, via either hereditary manufacturing or any other more traditional methods. Some countries apart from the usa utilize this term to refer specifically to hereditary engineering.

Genetically customized organism (GMO): an organism produced through hereditary adjustment.

Genetics: the analysis for the patterns of inheritance of certain faculties.

Genome: all of the genetic material throughout the chromosomes of a certain system.

Genomics: The mapping and sequencing of genetic product in DNA of a particular system plus the utilization of that information to higher understand what genetics do, how they are managed, the way they interact, and exactly what their real areas take the chromosome.

Genomic collection: an accumulation of biomolecules made of DNA fragments of a genome that represent the hereditary information of an organism that can be propagated then methodically screened for specific properties. The DNA is produced from the genomic DNA of an organism or from DNA copies made of messenger RNA particles. A computer-based collection of hereditary information from the biomolecules could be a "virtual genomic library."

Genotype: The hereditary identification of a person. Genotype usually is evident by outward faculties, but can also be mirrored in more subtle biochemical ways maybe not visually obvious.

Herbicide-tolerant crops: plants that have been created to endure application(s) of certain herbicides because of the incorporation of certain gene(s) either through genetic engineering or old-fashioned reproduction practices. The genes permit the herbicides is placed on the crop to provide effective weed control without harming the crop itself.

Hybrid: The offspring of every mix between two organisms of various genotypes.

Identity preservation: The segregation of one crop type from another at each phase from manufacturing and processing to distribution. This procedure is usually performed through audits and site visits and offers independent 3rd party verification of this segregation.

Insecticide resistance: the growth or selection of heritable characteristics (genes) in a pest population that allow people expressing the characteristic to survive when you look at the existence of degrees of an insecticide (biological or chemical control agent) that could usually debilitate or kill this types of pest. The current presence of such resistant pests helps make the insecticide less helpful for handling pest communities.

Insect-resistance management: a method for delaying the introduction of pesticide opposition by keeping some associated with the pest population in a refuge that's free from contact with the insecticide. For Bt crops this permits the bugs feeding in the Bt toxin to mate with bugs perhaps not confronted with the toxin produced in the plants.

Insect-resistant crops: flowers with the ability to endure, deter or repel insects and therefore avoid them from feeding on plant. The characteristics (genes) identifying weight might be chosen by plant breeders through cross-pollination along with other types of this crop or through the introduction of book genes such as Bt genetics through hereditary engineering.

Intellectual home liberties: The appropriate protection for innovations, including brand-new technologies or new organisms (such as brand-new plant varieties). Who owns these rights can manage their particular use and earn the incentives for his or her use. This motivates additional innovation and creativity for good thing about all of us. Intellectual residential property rights security includes a lot of different patents, trademarks, and copyrights.

Molecular biology: the research of structure and purpose of proteins and nucleic acids in biological systems.

Mutation: Any heritable change in DNA construction or series. The recognition and incorporation of helpful mutations has been required for conventional crop reproduction.

Source: www.bio.org
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