Iridoid glycosides

April 2, 2018
New Lignans and Iridoid

Cover imageSpecializing on host plants with toxic additional substances enforces particular adaptation in pest herbivores. In this analysis, we concentrate on two element courses, iridoid glycosides and cardenolides, that exist into the food plants of most insect species that show various degrees of version for them. These additional substances have very various settings of activity: Iridoid glycosides are usually triggered in instinct of the herbivores by β-glucosidases that may both stem from meals plant or be contained in the instinct as standard digestion enzymes. Upon cleaving, the volatile aglycone is introduced that unspecifically acts by crosslinking proteins and inhibiting enzymes. Cardenolides, having said that, are extremely specific inhibitors of an essential ion carrier, the sodium pump. In bugs confronted with both types of toxins, providers either allowing the safe storage of this substances from the activating enzymes or excluding the toxins from delicate areas, play an important role that deserves further analysis. In order to avoid poisoning of iridoid glycosides, repression of activating enzymes emerges as a possible alternative method. Cardenolides, on the other hand, may lose their particular toxicity if their particular target website is changed which method features evolved several times by themselves in cardenolide-adapted bugs.

Graphical abstract

Bugs have adapted to tolerate and employ iridoid glycosides and cardenolides despite their particular frequently toxic effects. We right here review which physiological processes underlie these adaptations.


Image► Iridoid glycosides within the meals plant unspecifically damage insects by crosslinking nutritional and tissue proteins. ► Insects may avoid toxicity by suppressing gut enzymes that activate iridoid glycosides. ► Cardenolides act so much more particularly by blocking a vital ion carrier, the Na+/K+-ATPase. ► bugs on cardenolide flowers have actually continuously evolved target site insensitivity to avoid this poisonous result.


  • Iridoid glycosides;
  • Cardenolides;
  • Insect metabolic process;
  • Sequestration;
  • Exclusion;
  • Excretion;
  • Na+/K+-ATPase;
  • Target site insensitivity

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All legal rights reserved.

Susanne Dobler obtained her Diploma at University of Erlangen-Nürnberg in 1990 with a neuro-ethological thesis on acoustic interaction in bushcrickets. For her Ph.D., she turned to Basel University, Switzerland, to work alongside Martine Rahier in the substance ecology of leaf beetles that either sequester pyrrolizidine alkaloids from their number plant or autogenously create cardenolides.Image Chemical ecology of herbivorous pests has actually intrigued her since and remained the main topic of her postdoctoral study times in the Free University of Brussels with Jacques Pasteels so when a NATO and Swiss National Science Fonds postdoctoral other on University of Colorado with Deane Bowers and Brian Farrell. In 1996, she got an assistant professorship at Freiburg University in which she established her very own work team concentrating on the advancement of host relationship and adaptations to plant compounds in leaf beetles. Since 2003, she's a position as full teacher at Hamburg University. Existing interests associated with work team are the evolutionary flexibility of physiological and molecular adaptations to cardenolides, iridoid glycosides and pyrrolizidine alkaloids in a comparative approach.

Georg Petschenka studied during the Universities of Tübingen and Bayreuth. In 2005, he obtained their Diploma on University of Bayreuth. Inside the thesis at the division of Animal Ecology II he investigated a plant-insect interacting with each other between a lepidopteran species and a ranunculacean plant. After his studies he worked as a taxonomist at the Natural History Museum of Karlsruhe on Iranian geometrid moths. In 2006, he started their Ph.D. thesis in the University of Hamburg (Biozentrum Grindel, Molecular Evolutionary Ecology) examining physiological adaptations of herbivorous bugs to plant cardiac glycosides. He defended his thesis this season and is today continuing his research as a postdoc in identical laboratory.

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